Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Charlie Chaplin Essays -- Charlie Chaplin Essay

Sir Charles Chaplin’s discourse from the 1940 movie called The Great Dictator was very hard-hitting and helpful. It did very well to get the message over. His discourse was a weep for help for the benefit of numerous regular folks, requesting a truly necessary change on the planet, thinking back to the 1940s. He quickly addressed the power of the issue and what it could become later on if no move would be made. In doing as such, he kept up regard with the crowd; instead of patronizing them, he put himself onto their level without being excessively recognizable. Boldly, Chaplin viably communicated to the individuals that it is our obligation as people to improve the world a spot since its destiny is controlled by our impact. Directly off the bat, Chaplin passes on his quietude. In his discourse, he clarifies that he was doing whatever it takes not to be a tyrant, for example, Hitler. Or maybe, he needed to show that he was much the same as them, a plain man who wanted change on the planet. Through his discourse, it is obvious that Chaplin is the middle person, however not in a high spot. His initial two words, discreetly expressed, are, â€Å"I’m sorry,†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (The Great Dictator 1940). Rather than a president attempting to win a political decision, saying these two words at the earliest reference point of a discourse quickly carry Chaplin to the people’s level, despite the fact that he is the speaker and the demander of harmony. I discovered this successful in light of the fact that it is reviving for me to see quietude in such an amazing discourse. It doesn't demonstrate that he needs to be adored. These two words promptly give him regard since it shows regret, and thus, the indivi duals will be progressively open to his words. It support me to see that he was not haughty. He later proceeds to state, â€Å"I s... incredible on the grounds that it urges the crowd to truly observe the issue, and without activity taken by every person, the difficult will remain. Chaplin’s methodologies combined with his ground-breaking energetic voice helped him to effectively win the hearts of numerous and break through to his focused on crowd. Works Cited>. mindfulness statements statements from-steve-jobs.html contrasts despot the-discourse that-resonates over time/

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Ability Tracking Essay -- Teaching Education

Capacity Tracking Presentation On the off chance that there is one general accord among the individuals who examine America’s arrangement of instruction, it is that we are inadequate with regards to some place. Regardless of whether it’s in our downtown schools, or rustic locale, there is a particular proficiency difficulty that still can't seem to be settled in our schools. Not exclusively are we gravely behind different countries in our proficiency rate and arithmetic capacities, however there is likewise an expanding void inside our schools. A strategy for isolation known as â€Å"ability grouping† has been a regularly utilized practice all through the 90’s, and has changed the manner by which essential and optional school understudies are instructed. The thought behind capacity gathering, or following, is that â€Å"many school experts expect that gathering by capacity advances student’s accomplishment since, it is contended, all understudies learn best when assembled with understudies of comparable abilities or levels of achievement.†(Perceptions) There are numerous contentions for either side, hence making one wonder â€Å"is capacity gathering a proficient method to deal with contrasts in understudy abilities?†(Education World) Contrary to today’s prominent sentiment, which normally runs against the current instructive structure of our schools, I accept capacity following is a successful and beneficial methods for teaching our childhood, for an assortment of reasons. Capacity following advances scholarly accomplishment, quality guidance, and is a methods for understudy inspiration. Lamentably, the individuals who don't partake enthusiastically in the following project can without much of a stretch b ecome lost or troubled with the framework. This having been stated, I don’t deny the way that numerous enhancements can be made to the current framework as a methods for extending and giving chances to every one of the individuals who want achievement. Scholarly Achievement In an article, Anne Wheelock, an unmistakable training pundit composes, â€Å"Tracking doesn't bring about the equivalent and impartial dissemination of powerful tutoring among all understudies. Rather, following allots the most important school encounters - including testing and significant educational program, connecting with guidance, and high educator desires - to understudies who as of now have the best scholarly, monetary, and social advantages†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This having been stated, I saw my secondary school encounters as very different than that. I went to a basically working class school in Sacramento, CA, with understudies f... ...h capacity gathering, in opposition to the post-current conviction of numerous defenders of â€Å"de-tracking† our schools. Allowed there are numerous defects (as there would be in any instruction framework), however once we work through those blemishes, for example, social and racial preference, capacity gathering will take our general public higher than ever. We are in good shape. Book reference: â€Å"Tracking†,, Copyright 2000, Editorial Projects in Education Chen-Lin C. Kulik and James A. Kulik, Impacts of Ability Grouping on Secondary School Students: A Meta-Analysis of Evaluation Findings, American Educational Research Journal, 19 (1982) Jeannie Oakes, Kevin Welner, and Susan Yonezawa, Commanding Equity: A Case Study of Court-Ordered Detracking in San Jose Schools. From the California Policy Seminar Brief Series, March 1998, Available online at: Tom Loveless, â€Å"The Tracking and Ability Grouping Debate†, The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Heidi Schweingruber â€Å"The Perception of Ability Differences in U.S. Education†, States/perception.html

Friday, August 21, 2020

Classical Conditioning Learn How to Create Habits for Success

Classical Conditioning Learn How to Create Habits for Success Don’t you know that there is science behind your cravings for your favorite restaurant food or sweets when you think about them?This science is also responsible for your excitement when you go out to work. It’s also the reason why you’re probably scared about the idea of hiking if you have fear of heights.It’s even responsible for people’s urge to smoke cigarettes or drink coffee if they are addicted to nicotine and/or caffeine, respectively. This science what we call as classical conditioning, and you will realize here that it’s actually a part of our everyday reactions. Classical conditioning is a type of learning that acquires new information and behavior based on associating a certain stimulation.Many experts believe that classical conditioning deals with our reaction based on our experience. It’s also believed that classical conditioning refers to a learning process based on a paired stimulus. It’s where a strong stimulus is paired with a neutral-level stimulus i n order to create a response.The basics of classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov. Several factors which employ classical conditioning were soon discovered after he discovered it.These will be explained later on.Firstly, let us take a look at Ivan Pavlov’s life and how he was able to develop classical conditioning.IVAN PAVLOV THE FATHER OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONINGIvan Pavlov (September 14, 1849 February 27, 1936) was the physiologist who discovered the learning process.His childhood days in a church school in Ryazan showed a curiosity at a highly intellectual level that he calls his “instinct for research”. He got his ideas when he based Dmitry Pisarev and Ivan Sechenov’s ideals in physiology.As a result, Pavlov started to focus on science and physiology and left he church school to attend a natural science course at the University of Saint Petersburg.From this moment, until his discovery of classical conditioning, Pavlov was able to comfortably study his passi on to the point where he became known as one of the most successful physiologists of his time.Classical conditioning was actually his main focus throughout his career and he devoted his life in developing various theories about it.He was able to grab various rewards in his career, such as gold medals when he got his degree of Candidate of Natural Sciences in 2875. He even won a Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904; the first Russian to receive the Nobel prize.He is highly regarded and respected for his talents even up to this day.A Dog, a Bell and Some Food: The Discovery of Classical ConditioningPavlov’s discovery of classical conditioning occurred in the 1900s where he experimented with his dog Circa. Pavlov’s experiment was the foundation of the learning process as it shows the very basics of the study.The very first experiment undergone two phases. The first one was conducted by Pavlov when the dog was placed in a box with a harness. The dog was left alone in the b ox for a few hours. This procedure was repeated many times on different days.However, this phase didn’t prove much of the study. However, the second phase proved the most basic result of the experiment.It was conducted by observing how Circa will salivate based on two different but paired stimulus.A salivary gland was attached to the dog to measure the amount of saliva produced upon stimulation. Pavlov rang a bell (which he called as the neutral stimulus or NS) and then gave food (Pavlov called this as the unconditioned stimulus or UCS) to Circa afterwards.The process was repeated every time Circa receives food.At the first few days, the dog salivated (labeled initially as an unconditioned response or UCR only at the sight of the food.But when the experiment was repeated further for multiple days, the dog seemed to salivate (now called as the conditioned response or CR) at the sound of the ring without the food being seen.This caused the neutral stimulus (the ringing) to become a conditioned stimulus (CS) through the support of the unconditioned stimulus (the food). This caused the dog to instinctively think that the ringing of the bell means mealtime.Author’s Note: I also had the same scenario with my cats. When we first go them, they don’t respond on the sound of the plastic bag when I shake it before feeding them with the ca food in it. After a few months, they respond quickly and approach me whenever they hear the rusting of the plastic bag. They even meow for food when they hear us eat during mealtime because they got used to getting fed right after our meals. It just shows that classical conditioning is purely based on experience and instinct combined.“The graph below serves as the blueprint of the experiment and the very basic example of classical conditioning: Source: PsychstudyHUMANS HAVE INSTINCTS: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ON HUMANSClassical conditioning’s was also found out to be applicable to humans, as classical conditioning is a form behavioral pattern.There are numerous proofs where classical conditioning is applied to our everyday lives.It has played an important role in generating various responses. The field of behavioral science has also accepted classical conditioning as a basis for numerous researches that studies mental health as well.More advanced conditioning studies such as fear conditioning and taste aversion learning also rooted from trials conducted from classical conditioning.According to Morsella (Psychological Review, 2005), people have the ability to suppress behaviors but cannot suppress the urges that connects the stimulus of their behaviors.Morsella also states that the circuits in the brain that conducts classical conditioning are different from the circuits that develop our conscious memories.She also stated th at classical conditioning is different from operant conditioning as it’s based on stimulating the person in exchange of a certain reward which she called as “voluntary” conditioning.On the other hand, Morsella dubs classical conditioning as “involuntary”. She also credited Pavlov for the development of her review.Daily experiences from any type of stimulation can be conducted to humans as well, such as what this scene from The Office shows: In the video shown above, Jim classically conditions Dwight by giving him some mints whenever Jim’s computer plays an error sound. Jim repeatedly did It to the point where Dwight is instinctively asking for the mints even if Jim doesn’t have any at the moment.The Little Albert Experiment: A Case Study In Developing Phobia One of the milestones that made classical conditioning more noticeable to humans is the Little Albert Experiment. It was done by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner on a 9 month old infant named Albert.He was tested on his reactions by introducing stimuli based on animal interaction.Albert was able to touch and see white rats and monkeys. He was also introduced to objects such as masks. The infant didn’t respond to the animals and objects.However, Little Albert began to cry when these objects and animals were shown, followed by a loud sound of a hammer hitting a steel bar. The noise startled Little Albert to tears.Two months later, Albert was conditioned to fearing the rat by presenting it in front of the baby, followed by the noise of the hammer striking the steel bar.This was done seven times within seven weeks, resulting in Albert crying all the time.Afterwards, physiologists observed that Little Albert starts to experience fear upon the sight of the white rat even if no hammer is stroke against the steel bar.The conditioned response of fear is often conditionally stimulated by everything white from this point; even a white fur coat or a white dog scared the child.Watson and Rayner labele d this learning process as generalization, which is linked to various applications of classical conditioning in a human’s everyday life and activities.APPLICATIONS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IN OUR EVERYDAY LIVESOur conditioned stimulus can come from different aspects of life that we have developed over the years.This is what Morsella has stated whenever we deal with involuntary reactions based on a certain stimuli that we expect or unexpectedly encounter in our everyday lives. Here are the following applications of classical conditioning that we may or may not be aware of in our daily lives:AdvertisingAdvertising techniques are also heavy associated with classical conditioning.Some businesses even conduct research with physiologists to observe the behavior of the people within their market. Companies employ different personalities for advertising.For example, animated character are often used as commercial models for kids’ products. On the other hand, beautiful women are often u sed for beauty product advertisements and apparels.The field of advertising can also use a certain daily scenario as a way to classically condition the market into purchasing their product. For example, a child or adult having a terrible cough is shown in commercials for cough medicines. In turn, the market to purchase on the company’s end when they suffer from a terrible cough.AddictionThe study of addiction to humans and its treatment was further advanced through the use of classical conditioning.Rehabilitation centers also employ classical conditioning to their treatments to drug and alcohol addicts.Addiction is an easy example of classical conditioning as people addicted to a certain substance can feel relaxed even before intaking what they crave for.For example, caffeine addicts may experience relaxation upon smelling or thinking about coffee.Author’s Note: I was addicted to cigarettes two years ago. When I first started to smoke in 2009, I suddenly adopted a trait where I suddenly crave for cigarettes just by smelling the smoke from other smokers. I even became conditioned to smoking whenever I feel stressed years later when I started working.Doctors also got help from physiologists when treating addiction. Smoking cessation can now be accomplished through medication.Varenicline is one of those products as it weakens a patient’s nicotinic receptor. This results in reduced cravings for nicotine and can decrease the satisfaction felt from smoking tobacco. Varencline’s notable side effect is nausea; it Is even induced when the patient starts smoking again.This is called as conditioned taste aversion an advanced form of classical conditioning in tasting food and substances. This also results the patient to instinctively remember themselves to intake Varencline whenever they feel the urge to smoke completely breaking the habit.Author’s Note: Classical conditioning is also applicable for breaking addiction without the need for drugs. However, it is through experience. I suffered from bronchitis two years ago, where I finally became a heavy smoker. Ever since I got cured from it, I always remembered that horrible experience whenever I think about smoking cigarettes prompting me to avoid it. It shows that you can conditionally become stimulated in quitting to smoke if you experienced something that negatively impacted you.Emotional ResponseThere are two types of emotional response that can be generated through classical conditioning: negative and positive responses.Negative responses such as fear can be stimulated by associating it with what the person hears. For example, if they are afraid of dogs, a nearby bark of the dog can make them nervous even if they can’t see the dog yet. Phobias such as fear of water can also occur to hydrophobic patients when they go to a beach resort or a swimming pool.Positive responses such as relaxation can also occur when a person thinks of traveling or a massage when they badly need one. Exc itement is also a response based on classical conditioning if you feel like something good’s going to happen soon, like a planned trip or a date.HungerCravings are one of the by-products of classical conditioning as they become hungry when they think about a dish they are craving, resulting in its immediate purchase or preparation.Their cravings happen as they were able to experience something satisfying when they ate the dish out of hunger in the past.Some people walking or driving around town can feel hungry after they spot a restaurant or a popular fast-food chain. This happens because people are conditioned with the fact that restaurants provide the food they want to eat.Past ExperiencesPeople can also associate anything with a past experience.A soundtrack that you listened during your travels might make you remember those relaxing moments whenever you hear the song again on the radio.The scent of a perfume similar to what you girlfriend worn during a memorable date can make y ou reminisce those sweet moments if you smell if again in the mall.Post-traumatic disorders is also a by-product of classical conditioning for people who experienced something traumatic such as a war or an accident.The anxiety produced by PTSD may occur if a soldier who returned from combat hears fireworks during Independence Day or New Year, even if they enjoyed it before experiencing combat. Some worse scenarios involve the soldier being enraged or hysterical when they hear fireworks.Classical Conditioning in School and WorkStrict teachers, bullying, and school policies can induce fear to children when they attend their classes.A strict teacher who hates noise can silence the whole class if she arrives inside the room. It’s because they might have experienced the teacher’s scolding or punishments when one or more of the students produced unnecessary noise during class.Workplaces can produce more disciplined employees by implementing strict compliance and attendance policies. F riendly work environments or a workmates close to you can induce a feeling or attraction and urge to become productive at work.Drug and Food IntakeDrugs can also cause a conditioned response to our bodies and minds depending on what we felt when we first tried the medicine.For example, a bad tasting medicine can induce vomiting the next time you take it again.Some extreme cases even induce vomiting when the patient hears the name of the drug. On a positive note, some patients may feel relaxed when they are about to intake a medicine that relieved the symptoms of their illness.The same conditional response also goes for food. A person who hates vegetables may feel disgusted upon seeing or even hearing it. But cravings and hunger may occur to a person when they hear about their favorite dish.There are numerous examples of classical conditioning used in our daily lives. The following mentioned above are the most commonly experienced events. For sure this will keep you conscious about c lassical conditioning whenever you experience one of the following applications.HOW CAN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IMPROVE OUR LIVESClassical conditioning can impact our lives positively or negatively.But that doesn’t mean that we don’t have a choice in improving our lives using classical conditioning.Here are some nice tips that you can follow if you want to improve your life using the learning procedure:Breaking Bad HabitsYou can use classical conditioning in reversing your bad habits.For example, you can quit from smoking by diverting the way you spend cigarette smoking into saving money.So instead of going to a convenience store to purchase a pack, you will just place it on a piggy bank. If you condition yourself in saving money whenever you feel the urge to smoke, you may turn that into a saving habit whenever you have spare change on your wallet.Facing Your FearsFacing your fears can be temporarily or permanently be done when you have to face your fear often.A lot of experienc ed hikers say that mountain climbing can be the ultimate way to remove your fear of heights.At first, you just have to think about the fact that you need to go up and down the mountain because your hiking buddies are going to leave you behind. If you always think about that, you will focus more on the goal rather than your fears.With enough traveling to the mountains, you will soon realize that you’re more oriented towards your goals while not minding your fears anymore as your mind is finally conditioned in catching up with your buddies.Teaching Children The Right MannersEducating children the right manners nowadays is very crucial. Kids are growing smarter nowadays, and some of them can reason out with their parents.Conditioning your children by portraying good manners in exchange of your comfort and attention can be a good way. At first, your children will always comply just to get your attention and the rewards behind it.But eventually as they grow up, they will start performi ng good manners even if you occasionally give them rewards. It’s because your kids will start to think that doing the right manners grants them proper approach from other people.Training Your PetYou can train your pet in classical conditioning to perform a wide variety of tasks. Even pet tricks can be learned through classical conditioning.You just have to use the neutral stimulus as the objective or the task/trick that you want to train to your pet. Use food as the unconditioned stimulus just like what Pavlov did to his experiment.Do this for a few days to the point where your pet can perform the task just by ordering them to do it even without the food. To maintain the skill that you trained them to do, be sure to occasionally reward them with food.Becoming Good At WorkIf you’re a lazy person and you want to change for the best in your career life, classical conditioning can be your ally in becoming a committed professional.Use your drive to work as the neutral stimulus over a long-term goal that you want to attain (which will be the unconditioned stimulus).Short term goals are not applicable as it might give you the risk of inconsistency at being a good professional that will keep you from working hard for a long time until you become a hardworking person even if your goal is already accomplished.Now that’s a good mindset to consider!CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IS OUR EXPERIENCEWe should be thankful for Pavlov’s discovery as it helped us notice about the different responses that we can make based on certain scenarios. We can use this as an evolutionary tool in predicting the outcome of our actions.It can also be used as a way to treat negative traits such as addiction. Fears can also be analyzed by observing the neutral and unconditioned stimuli of our fear so then we can come with a solution to overcome it.If we can’t do it, always remember that physiologists are also there to aid us, especially now that you have an idea how classical conditioning wor ks.Classical conditioning isn’t just something that physiologists should understand. Even commoners who aren’t versed in the field of behavioral studies should understand the simply basics of this learning procedure. It’s one of the many things that helps us respond in the many events that can impact our lives.That’s why it’s worth learning about.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Terrorism Influences - 1537 Words

Terrorism Influences The history of terrorism has affected governments, communities, businesses and individuals. Terrorism has been around for thousands of years but the term was not developed until the French Revolution. Underlying conditions such as corruption, poverty, and religious conflict create opportunities for terrorists to exploit and take advantage of. Some of these conditions are real and some are made-up. Through the last 200 years, the concept of terrorism has been used to as a reference to political motivations and has been used a way to obtain liberation, oppression, and international global politics (â€Å"State Of Delaware†, 2012). Since the terrorist attacks, police departments have adopted homeland security†¦show more content†¦Right-wing terrorists are anti-Marxist and religious. This group supports the economic system and are usually in rural areas. They concentrate attacks on government figures. Modern right-wing terrorism began to appear in Western Europe a round 1980’s. Their beliefs include racism, opposition to immigration and people from other countries. â€Å"Some of these forms of terrorism have long traditions: violence against ethnic, racial, sexual and political minorities has been going on for decades, and even centuries, in some countries† (â€Å"War On Terrorism And Racism†, 2011). Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism The introduction of weapons of mass destruction into terrorism has triggered the creation of new departments that have the responsibility to analyze all types of threat information in a single location. â€Å"Such weapons include biological, chemical, nuclear and radiological devices, and range from the silent threat of a poison gas attack to a cataclysmic nuclear explosion. Those who would launch such attacks know thousands could die, of course, but their fundamental motive would be to strike fear and panic in tens of millions more† (Porteus, 2006). The likelihood of terrorists being able to produce or obtain weapons of mass destruction is the result of loose controls of the technology to produce such weapons, during the time of the former Soviet states. Weapons of mass destruction are very hard to produce and obtain. SomeShow MoreRelatedMedia Influences Terrorism779 Words   |  3 PagesTerrorism has been a controversial topic ever since the 19th century, during Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1807 (White, Jonathan, et al. 123). The term’s meaning has changed over time throughout history, and has sparked debates over its true definition (White Jonathan, et al. 7). It was not until after the 9/11 attacks, when the media started to bring terrorism in its headlines. By then, terrorism became a popular topic for its drama. Drama attracts audiences to read, watch, or listen to theirRead MoreThe Difference between Terrorism and Domestic Terrorism Essay1104 Words   |  5 PagesThe terms terrorism and domestic terror ism are very similar concepts. There are, however, slight differences in each. Entities that are apart of the Government have slightly different ways of explaining what they believe to be the correct definition of terrorism and domestic terrorism. In this paper the author will offer definitions of the two terms and state which one they agree with the most. The author will also state how the two terms are best differentiated. The Federal Bureau of InvestigationRead MoreList Of Definitions Of Terrorism Essay969 Words   |  4 Pagesthroughout the literature reviewed. These themes are: defining terrorism, the terrorist mindset, methods of identifying a potential terrorist, ways to detect terrorist activities prior to execution, and developing means to combat future acts of terrorism. 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Terrorism can be traced back nearly 50,000 years, to the onset of human existence. It has affected every culture, and every gender. Ranging from the Egyptians and the pharos, to the Greek kings. It has marched across all of the Middle East, through the once pure skies, right into our home land- the United States of America. But what is terrorism, and what makes it offensive? To understand terrorism, we must delve into its roots. In the documentaryRead MoreDifficulties Of Defining Terrorism And Terrorism807 Words   |  4 PagesDefining Terrorism Marissa P Rice Strayer University Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss the difficulties defining terrorism. I will focus on four government agencies definitions of terrorism. I will then choose two to compare and contrast. Then I will choose one definition of the four agencies that I believe most accurately defines terrorism. Difficulties of Defining Terrorism The definition of terrorism may give an enormous impetus in the way of combating terrorism. ThereRead MoreEssay on Terrorism in the Media1109 Words   |  5 PagesTerrorism in the Media Terrorism can be defined as the use of criminal violence to try to force a government to change. It can also be defined as the use of criminal violence that groups or individuals use to seek revenge and cause heartache amongst those that they want to hurt/threaten. Most terrorist groups prefer to target people for a more dramatic response and celebrate when the media broadcasts their violent acts on television and throughout the news. Lately, more and more deadly terroristRead MoreTerrorism : Terrorism And Terrorism1326 Words   |  6 Pagesallowing terrorism to be successful and continue. Terrorists gain power through the common, innocent people they attack. How the world responds to terrorist attacks determines whether or not terrorism will cease. The common people’s response to terrorism, the interest of the state, and the media’s role in terrorism all aide to terrorism’s success and its continuation in the future. How people willingly choose to respond to terrorist attacks defines terrorism and determines if terrorism will continueRead MoreGtd Flaws And Issues. Gtd Is Considered As One Of The Most1382 Words   |  6 Pagesarticles is always a subjective view, moreover only English articles were used, thus we can see only one side of the coin. Data collection that were used to gather information for the database is really important and if we change the method it may influence an outcome. GTD is used in the official reportings and cited by leading politicians as an â€Å"absolute truth† [6]. According to the experts, GTD isn’t always accurate and can show different results in comparison with other similar databases [6]. AsRead MoreTerrorism As A System Of Terror Essay1565 Words   |  7 PagesName Professor Course Date Terrorism is a difficult concept to define because definitions are not intended to be true or false but a reflection of evident phenomena that have common properties that result from similar causes and effects. The oxford English Dictionary defines terrorism as a system of terror directed and carried out by those in power such as that in France during the revolution of 1789-1794, or a system aimed at striking with terror the individuals whom it is adopted. This definition

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Republic Essay - 1514 Words

The Republic Plato was born around the year 428 BCE into an established Athenian household with a history of political connections -- including distant relations to both Solon and Pisistratus. Platos parents were Ariston and Perictone, his older brothers were Adeimantus and Glaucon, and his younger sister was Potone. In keeping with his family heritage, Plato was destined for the political life. But the Peloponnesian War, which began a couple of years before he was born and continued until well after he was twenty, led to the decline of the Athenian Empire. The war was followed by religious movement that led to the execution of Platos mentor, Socrates. Together these events forever altered the course of Platos life. Plato†¦show more content†¦Two of Platos relatives, Critias (his mothers uncle) and Charmides (his mothers brother) played roles in politics. Critias was identified as one of the more extreme members and chief advocate of the government, while Charmides played a smaller role as one of the Eleven, a customs/police force which oversaw the Piraeus. The government made a practice of confiscating the estates of wealthy Athenians and resident aliens and of putting many individuals to death. In an effort to implicate Socrates in their actions, the government ordered him to arrest Leon of Salamis. Socrates, however, resisted and was spared punishment only because a civil war eventually replaced the corrupt government with a new and most radical democracy. A general amnesty, the first in history, was issued absolving those who participated in the reign of terror and other crimes committed during the war. But because many of Socrates associates were involved with the corrupt government, public sentiment had turned against him, and he now had the reputation of being anti-democratic. In what appears to be a matter of guilt-by-association, a general prejudice was ultimately responsible for bringing Socrates to trial in 399 on the charges of corrupting the youth, introducing new gods into the city, atheism, and engaging in unusual religious practices. During his trial,Show MoreRelatedThe Republic Of Plato s Republic865 Words   |  4 Pagesgovernments, ideal cities and even ideal rulers over the course of the semester, from Aristotle’s Politics to the city described in the Melian dialogue, there is one that undoubtedly left a greater on me than the other- the city described in Plato’s Republic. From Plato’s remarkably feminist ideals and vague sense of barebones socialism, there’s a lot in this city that I hypothetically would throw my support behind. This is not to say that I think that this is the â€Å"best† option of the cities that weRead MoreThe Republic Of Haiti Versus The French Republic1963 Words   |  8 PagesKamal Mo hamed, Sanford H. Calhoun High School Introduction: The court will be hearing the case of the Republic of Haiti versus the French Republic. The mannor of the case will be concerning the Independence debt of 1825 in which the French Republic issued a tax amount of 90 million gold Francs in the year 1825 due to the Republic of Haiti s desire to leave the French Empire. The French Republic calculated the amount after the former slave owners totalled the loss after the former slaves revoltedRead MoreThe Republic Of The Dominican Republic Essay1186 Words   |  5 PagesThe dominican Republic is known as the breadbasket of the Caribbean because it grows, farms, and catches almost everything that’s served for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The Dominican Republic was the first colony founded by Christopher Columbus. It used to go by â€Å"La Hispaniola† in colonial times. Also the flag of the Dominican Republic is the only national flag in the world to feature the image of a bible. My country is the Dominican Republic. I learn ed about the culture, food, religion, importsRead MoreCzech Republic And The Republic2518 Words   |  11 PagesThe Czech Republic is located nearly in the center of Europe and was recently known as Czechoslovakia. The Czech Republic is bordered by Slovakia, Germany, Poland, and Austria. The Czech Republic was a part of Czechoslovakia until 1993 when it split into both the Czech Republic and Slovakia. With it being a fairly new country, one would assume that it is struggling to catch up to society economically, this is simply untrue, because the Czech Republic is one of the most economically stable countriesRead MoreWeimar Republic And Its Effect On The Republic732 Words   |  3 Pages The Weimar republic by:Efren Camacho, World History, pd 1 Weimar republic weaknesses were important because, the Weimar republic was elected for a new republic of Germany later on,that did not turn on well. First, the weimar republic was elected for new government Jan,1919. The Nazis came to power in the 1930’s, and manich to establish a dictatorship.why were the Weimar republic weaknesses significant? The origins of the Weimar republic, weaknesses, how did Hitler come toRead MoreMonarchy vs Republic1907 Words   |  8 PagesEssay # 1 The question of monarchy versus republic is mostly discussed from a highly emotional rather than a rational point of view. A few undignified occupants of royal thrones are enumerated, and are then presented as examples of monarchy as such. The defenders of monarchy are no better. They point to corrupt professional politicians, of whom there exist a sufficient number, and claim that this is the necessary consequence of a republican constitution. Neither is a rational argument. There haveRead MoreLarge Vs. Small Republic1001 Words   |  5 Pages#1, Question 2 Large vs. Small Republic America is an incredibly vast, diverse country, and has been this way for hundreds of years. The sheer size of America, even when it was only composed of thirteen states with a total population of nearly three million people (Brutus, essay 1, p. 64), concerned many Americans in the 1780s, due to this inquiry: was America simply too large for a republican style government to work? Many anti-federalists claimed that republics could only work on a small scaleRead More Platos Republic Essay1892 Words   |  8 Pages Platos Republic nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Critics of The Republic, Platos contribution to the history of political theory, have formed two distinct opinions on the reasoning behind the work. The first group believes that The Republic is truly a model for a political society, while the other strongly objects to that, stating it as being far too fantastic for any society to operate successfully by these suggested methods. In an exchange between Crito and Dionysius, this argument is first introducedRead MoreLegend By Marie Lu : The Republic1053 Words   |  5 PagesLegend by Marie Lu is a, post-apocalyptic future Los Angeles dystopia ruled by the Republic. In Legend, there are two main characters; Day a fifteen year old boy, also, the Republics most wanted criminal. He is also homeless, because he had failed his trial that he had taken when he was ten that determines his social class and his job. His brother is affected by a new kind of plague, which is â€Å"attacking† the sectors. His other brother’s name is John and he has a mother. He lives with his friend TessRead MoreEssay on Machiavellis Advice to Republics570 Words   |  3 PagesMachiavellis Advice to Republics In secular democracies, power is necessarily derived from the will of the governed. That power is then entrusted to a leader, who Machiavelli would understand to be a prince. Inherently, his book, The Prince, has been close at hand for most politicians for centuries, as it provides general, historically proven advice for principalities and republics on how to govern and maintain relations with their most important resource and the very core of their power

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Phobias - 1174 Words

Running head: PHOBIAS AND ADDICTIONS Phobias and Addictions PSY/300 Abstract This essay examines phobias and addictions, how phobias can be developed through operant conditioning and how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning. This essay also examines the distinctions between classical and operant condition and examines â€Å"extinction† as it relates to psychological theory and how extinction is achieved in classical and operant conditioning. Phobias and Addictions Numerous psychologists believe that behaviors are learned through conditioning. These conditionings are known as operant, which is based on individual’s response to outside stimuli, and classical conditioning, which is†¦show more content†¦Whereas, in operant conditioning a behavior becomes associated with an environmental effect such as a feeling of being rewarded by performing a certain behavior. Classical conditioning is a passive learning experience, whereas Operant conditioning is generally a more active learning experience. What is extinction? In psyc hology, extinction is the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing. For example, when a dog becomes conditioned to receiving treats due to begging, (reinforcing the behavior), the dog can become conditioned to developing a taste for only treats. At this point the dog will stop eating its regular diet and eat only treats. For extinction, you ignore the dogs begging for treats and eventually this behavior will stop and the dog will resume eating its regular diet. â€Å" Reinforcement is one type of environmental consequence that controls behavior through operant conditioning; the other is punishment, whereas reinforcement always increases the likelihood of a response, either by the presentation of a reward or the removal of an aversive stimulus, punishment decreases the probability that a behavior will recur†(Kowalski Weston ,2009).While extinction can be actualized, the process of disassociating a person to bring abou t a change in behavior can be long, and, arduous, yet it can be an extremely rewarding journey. Extinction in classicalShow MoreRelatedPhobias And Its Effects On Phobias925 Words   |  4 PagesA phobia is a phenomenon where an organism has a distinct fear of a particular event or object. Phobias can not only be a biological instinct but rather a conditioned emotional response as well. Though, there has been some argument on what causes phobia it is generally accepted that phobias both stem from biological input and environmental experiences. The first reference to phobias was done by Hippocrates, who wrote about one of his patients having an extreme fear over something that othersRead MorePhobias802 Words   |  4 PagesAracniphobi, the fear of spiders, might be one of the first phobias to come across someone’s lips. One of my phobias is Cynophobia, or the fear of dogs. There are many things that scare people, but when someone starts thinking of college, fear is not the first thing that pops into their head. Usually, it’s things like staying up late, freedom, and being on your own that makes everyone jump for joy to leave their parent’s nest. I feel fear. I’m afraid to an extent. I know that it won’t be the beingRead More Phobias Essay1282 Words   |  6 Pagesrecognizes that phobias are not something to be ashamed of, and that everyone has at least one. But what exactly is a phobia? Simply put, it’s an anxiety disorder. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The exact definition of a phobia is a bit different though. A phobia is an anxiety disorder in which a person will experience a strong, irrational fear of a situation, object, or activity. Adults with fears usually realize they are being irrational, but children are the opposite. A phobia will produce a feelingRead MorePhobias: Effects and Treatments of Phobias Essay1534 Words   |  7 Pagesand situations involving spiders. Should phobias be treated in everybody, including young children? Phobias should be treated seriously, because they cause disruptions in the lives of the victims, they leave emotional and psychological scars, and the cause acute distress and panic attacks that take a normal situation and make it terrifying. A phobia is an irrational fear of an object or situation (â€Å"PhobiaFacts – Phobias†). Every fear is a phobia though there may not be an official nameRead MoreEssay on Phobias1925 Words   |  8 PagesPhobias Fear is a normal and an important human reaction to something dangerous, it keeps one out of danger, because fear is disliked and one tries ones best to avoid the object or situation of fear. It causes physical changes known as fight-or-flight reaction, which causes blood pressure to increase and the heart rate to speed up to pump blood to the large muscles used to run away, to balance this the human body has sweat glands which produce perspiration to cool the body. Usually young peopleRead More Phobias Essay2226 Words   |  9 Pages Phobias nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Phobias are a very common disorder in the United States these days. The definition for phobia is quot;an abnormal or morbid fear or aversionquot; (quot;Oxfordquot; 655). To be considered a phobia, a fear must cause great distress or interfere with a personamp;#8217;s life in a major way. The word phobia is Greek, therefore, any word that proceeds it should be Greek too. To coin a new phobia name, it is proper and only accepted to follow this rule. TheRead MoreThe History of Phobias Essay1117 Words   |  5 PagesPhobias have been in existence for many years. Phobias date back to the works of Hippocrates, a prehistoric Greek physician (Korgeski, 2009). The works of Hippocrates are still debated today. In The Seventh Book of Epidemics, one of the publications by Hippocrates, he studied an individual and he interpreted a condition that the person portrayed. The results of the observation were that the individual was petrified of the sound of a flute, if he was n’t intoxicated. He noticed the individual wasRead MoreFear : Fear And Phobia1328 Words   |  6 PagesFear and phobia, we all face one at some point in time though the question of what causes it or at the least why we were we biologically inclined to have phobias and fear.Winerman, L. (2016). Lest we forget we have nothing to fear but fear itself and look upon this inquiry of what fear is. Be it a scary movie or something far more sinister, but what does it all mean? What causes you to fear? Well Based on my research I conclude that fear is something that can be learned or inherited. Alongside myRead MorePhobia Speech902 Words   |  4 Pagestrucks below looked like ants? Would you scream, yell or cry? Would you be left feeling nauseas, or unable to move. Would you hyperventilate and suffer a serious heart attack right there siting on your chair? If you would, you may have a phobia. A phobia is an extreme or irrational fear. Everybody suffers from some kind of fear, everybody in the WORLD suffers from some kind of fear. Except Chuck Norris, he doesn’t have fears, fears have Chuck Norris. Most fears start fron scary events/thingRead MorePhobia Research Paper2253 Words   |  10 PagesKnown as a mental disorder a phobia is a persistent fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to compelling desire to avoid it. Phobias tend to affect the way people live their lives, for example, their working and social environments, considering that they last for a very long time and are capable to cause intense psychological physical stress. It is considered today the most common mental and anxiety disorder in the United States (Matig Mavissakalian David H. Barlow 1981 pp

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Institutional Pharmacy Setting Essay Example For Students

Institutional Pharmacy Setting Essay Institutional Pharmacy Setting 1 Institutional Pharmacy Setting Axia College of University of Phoenix Leonalda Cruz Institutional Pharmacy Setting 2 An institutional pharmacy provides an array of services for residents of nursing homes, hospitals, hospice care, and other long term facilities. In this particular setting, the pharmacist will take responsibility for the medication that the patients’ need and ensures that patients’ medications are appropriate, effective, safe, and they are used correctly. A pharmacy technician may work with less supervision in this setting, so it is important that the technician also be familiar with dosing, compounding, IV administration, and other drug relation procedures. The institutional pharmacy provides delivery service and prescription drugs that are individually packaged. Pharmacists constantly check patients’ drug interaction to avoid duplication of the treatment and reactions. The institutional pharmacy is a principal defense against medical errors and allows the pharmacists and staff to provide patient the quality care that they deserve. The pharmacist counsels patients, provide drug regimens, and oversee medication distribution. Institutional pharmacists and technicians use controlled dispensing systems to make sure that patients have the right drugs at the right time and in the proper dosage and form. Intense services and comprehensive scope are other services provided by the institutional pharmacy. o  Ã‚   For what tasks might an institutional-pharmacy technician be responsible? o  Ã‚   How are medication orders processed in an institutional pharmacy setting? o  Ã‚   How do institutional and noninstitutional pharmacy settings differ? o  Ã‚   What patient issues might arise when working in an institutional pharmacy setting? o  Ã‚   Which issues may be unique to institutional pharmacy settings?