Sunday, May 24, 2020
Terrorism Influences The history of terrorism has affected governments, communities, businesses and individuals. Terrorism has been around for thousands of years but the term was not developed until the French Revolution. Underlying conditions such as corruption, poverty, and religious conflict create opportunities for terrorists to exploit and take advantage of. Some of these conditions are real and some are made-up. Through the last 200 years, the concept of terrorism has been used to as a reference to political motivations and has been used a way to obtain liberation, oppression, and international global politics (Ã¢â¬Å"State Of DelawareÃ¢â¬ , 2012). Since the terrorist attacks, police departments have adopted homeland securityÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Right-wing terrorists are anti-Marxist and religious. This group supports the economic system and are usually in rural areas. They concentrate attacks on government figures. Modern right-wing terrorism began to appear in Western Europe a round 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. Their beliefs include racism, opposition to immigration and people from other countries. Ã¢â¬Å"Some of these forms of terrorism have long traditions: violence against ethnic, racial, sexual and political minorities has been going on for decades, and even centuries, in some countriesÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"War On Terrorism And RacismÃ¢â¬ , 2011). Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism The introduction of weapons of mass destruction into terrorism has triggered the creation of new departments that have the responsibility to analyze all types of threat information in a single location. Ã¢â¬Å"Such weapons include biological, chemical, nuclear and radiological devices, and range from the silent threat of a poison gas attack to a cataclysmic nuclear explosion. Those who would launch such attacks know thousands could die, of course, but their fundamental motive would be to strike fear and panic in tens of millions moreÃ¢â¬ (Porteus, 2006). The likelihood of terrorists being able to produce or obtain weapons of mass destruction is the result of loose controls of the technology to produce such weapons, during the time of the former Soviet states. Weapons of mass destruction are very hard to produce and obtain. SomeShow MoreRelatedMedia Influences Terrorism779 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesTerrorism has been a controversial topic ever since the 19th century, during NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s invasion of Spain in 1807 (White, Jonathan, et al. 123). The termÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning has changed over time throughout history, and has sparked debates over its true definition (White Jonathan, et al. 7). It was not until after the 9/11 attacks, when the media started to bring terrorism in its headlines. By then, terrorism became a popular topic for its drama. Drama attracts audiences to read, watch, or listen to theirRead MoreThe Difference between Terrorism and Domestic Terrorism Essay1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe terms terrorism and domestic terror ism are very similar concepts. There are, however, slight differences in each. Entities that are apart of the Government have slightly different ways of explaining what they believe to be the correct definition of terrorism and domestic terrorism. In this paper the author will offer definitions of the two terms and state which one they agree with the most. The author will also state how the two terms are best differentiated. The Federal Bureau of InvestigationRead MoreList Of Definitions Of Terrorism Essay969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthroughout the literature reviewed. These themes are: defining terrorism, the terrorist mindset, methods of identifying a potential terrorist, ways to detect terrorist activities prior to execution, and developing means to combat future acts of terrorism. Although the literature presents these main themes in a variety of perspectives, this paper will primarily focus on their applicability to the terrorist lifecycle. Defining Terrorism What is a terrorist? Before we can determine the likelihoodRead MoreThe Study Of Terrorism And Terrorism929 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The study of terrorism is as complex as the problem itself. How the many factors of terrorism, such as fear and popular support, are interwoven make this a difficult problem to understand, let alone defeat. With this in mind it becomes clear that understanding the problem is, perhaps, the all-important first step to defeating it. To that end, the five most important things about terrorism and counterterrorism I learned from this course are: 1) Our National Strategy for Counterterrorism isRead MoreThe Is Terrorism, And What Makes It Offensive?1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfactors. Perspectives are a major factor with terrorism. Terrorism can be traced back nearly 50,000 years, to the onset of human existence. It has affected every culture, and every gender. Ranging from the Egyptians and the pharos, to the Greek kings. It has marched across all of the Middle East, through the once pure skies, right into our home land- the United States of America. But what is terrorism, and what makes it offensive? To understand terrorism, we must delve into its roots. In the documentaryRead MoreDifficulties Of Defining Terrorism And Terrorism807 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDefining Terrorism Marissa P Rice Strayer University Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss the difficulties defining terrorism. I will focus on four government agencies definitions of terrorism. I will then choose two to compare and contrast. Then I will choose one definition of the four agencies that I believe most accurately defines terrorism. Difficulties of Defining Terrorism The definition of terrorism may give an enormous impetus in the way of combating terrorism. ThereRead MoreEssay on Terrorism in the Media1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTerrorism in the Media Terrorism can be defined as the use of criminal violence to try to force a government to change. It can also be defined as the use of criminal violence that groups or individuals use to seek revenge and cause heartache amongst those that they want to hurt/threaten. Most terrorist groups prefer to target people for a more dramatic response and celebrate when the media broadcasts their violent acts on television and throughout the news. Lately, more and more deadly terroristRead MoreTerrorism : Terrorism And Terrorism1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesallowing terrorism to be successful and continue. Terrorists gain power through the common, innocent people they attack. How the world responds to terrorist attacks determines whether or not terrorism will cease. The common peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s response to terrorism, the interest of the state, and the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in terrorism all aide to terrorismÃ¢â¬â¢s success and its continuation in the future. How people willingly choose to respond to terrorist attacks defines terrorism and determines if terrorism will continueRead MoreGtd Flaws And Issues. Gtd Is Considered As One Of The Most1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesarticles is always a subjective view, moreover only English articles were used, thus we can see only one side of the coin. Data collection that were used to gather information for the database is really important and if we change the method it may influence an outcome. GTD is used in the official reportings and cited by leading politicians as an Ã¢â¬Å"absolute truthÃ¢â¬ . According to the experts, GTD isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always accurate and can show different results in comparison with other similar databases . AsRead MoreTerrorism As A System Of Terror Essay1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesName Professor Course Date Terrorism is a difficult concept to define because definitions are not intended to be true or false but a reflection of evident phenomena that have common properties that result from similar causes and effects. The oxford English Dictionary defines terrorism as a system of terror directed and carried out by those in power such as that in France during the revolution of 1789-1794, or a system aimed at striking with terror the individuals whom it is adopted. This definition
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The Republic Plato was born around the year 428 BCE into an established Athenian household with a history of political connections -- including distant relations to both Solon and Pisistratus. Platos parents were Ariston and Perictone, his older brothers were Adeimantus and Glaucon, and his younger sister was Potone. In keeping with his family heritage, Plato was destined for the political life. But the Peloponnesian War, which began a couple of years before he was born and continued until well after he was twenty, led to the decline of the Athenian Empire. The war was followed by religious movement that led to the execution of Platos mentor, Socrates. Together these events forever altered the course of Platos life. PlatoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Two of Platos relatives, Critias (his mothers uncle) and Charmides (his mothers brother) played roles in politics. Critias was identified as one of the more extreme members and chief advocate of the government, while Charmides played a smaller role as one of the Eleven, a customs/police force which oversaw the Piraeus. The government made a practice of confiscating the estates of wealthy Athenians and resident aliens and of putting many individuals to death. In an effort to implicate Socrates in their actions, the government ordered him to arrest Leon of Salamis. Socrates, however, resisted and was spared punishment only because a civil war eventually replaced the corrupt government with a new and most radical democracy. A general amnesty, the first in history, was issued absolving those who participated in the reign of terror and other crimes committed during the war. But because many of Socrates associates were involved with the corrupt government, public sentiment had turned against him, and he now had the reputation of being anti-democratic. In what appears to be a matter of guilt-by-association, a general prejudice was ultimately responsible for bringing Socrates to trial in 399 on the charges of corrupting the youth, introducing new gods into the city, atheism, and engaging in unusual religious practices. During his trial,Show MoreRelatedThe Republic Of Plato s Republic865 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgovernments, ideal cities and even ideal rulers over the course of the semester, from AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Politics to the city described in the Melian dialogue, there is one that undoubtedly left a greater on me than the other- the city described in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic. From PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s remarkably feminist ideals and vague sense of barebones socialism, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot in this city that I hypothetically would throw my support behind. This is not to say that I think that this is the Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ option of the cities that weRead MoreThe Republic Of Haiti Versus The French Republic1963 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesKamal Mo hamed, Sanford H. Calhoun High School Introduction: The court will be hearing the case of the Republic of Haiti versus the French Republic. The mannor of the case will be concerning the Independence debt of 1825 in which the French Republic issued a tax amount of 90 million gold Francs in the year 1825 due to the Republic of Haiti s desire to leave the French Empire. The French Republic calculated the amount after the former slave owners totalled the loss after the former slaves revoltedRead MoreThe Republic Of The Dominican Republic Essay1186 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe dominican Republic is known as the breadbasket of the Caribbean because it grows, farms, and catches almost everything thatÃ¢â¬â¢s served for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The Dominican Republic was the first colony founded by Christopher Columbus. It used to go by Ã¢â¬Å"La HispaniolaÃ¢â¬ in colonial times. Also the flag of the Dominican Republic is the only national flag in the world to feature the image of a bible. My country is the Dominican Republic. I learn ed about the culture, food, religion, importsRead MoreCzech Republic And The Republic2518 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe Czech Republic is located nearly in the center of Europe and was recently known as Czechoslovakia. The Czech Republic is bordered by Slovakia, Germany, Poland, and Austria. The Czech Republic was a part of Czechoslovakia until 1993 when it split into both the Czech Republic and Slovakia. With it being a fairly new country, one would assume that it is struggling to catch up to society economically, this is simply untrue, because the Czech Republic is one of the most economically stable countriesRead MoreWeimar Republic And Its Effect On The Republic732 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The Weimar republic by:Efren Camacho, World History, pd 1 Weimar republic weaknesses were important because, the Weimar republic was elected for a new republic of Germany later on,that did not turn on well. First, the weimar republic was elected for new government Jan,1919. The Nazis came to power in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, and manich to establish a dictatorship.why were the Weimar republic weaknesses significant? The origins of the Weimar republic, weaknesses, how did Hitler come toRead MoreMonarchy vs Republic1907 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesEssay # 1 The question of monarchy versus republic is mostly discussed from a highly emotional rather than a rational point of view. A few undignified occupants of royal thrones are enumerated, and are then presented as examples of monarchy as such. The defenders of monarchy are no better. They point to corrupt professional politicians, of whom there exist a sufficient number, and claim that this is the necessary consequence of a republican constitution. Neither is a rational argument. There haveRead MoreLarge Vs. Small Republic1001 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages#1, Question 2 Large vs. Small Republic America is an incredibly vast, diverse country, and has been this way for hundreds of years. The sheer size of America, even when it was only composed of thirteen states with a total population of nearly three million people (Brutus, essay 1, p. 64), concerned many Americans in the 1780s, due to this inquiry: was America simply too large for a republican style government to work? Many anti-federalists claimed that republics could only work on a small scaleRead More Platos Republic Essay1892 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Platos Republic nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Critics of The Republic, Platos contribution to the history of political theory, have formed two distinct opinions on the reasoning behind the work. The first group believes that The Republic is truly a model for a political society, while the other strongly objects to that, stating it as being far too fantastic for any society to operate successfully by these suggested methods. In an exchange between Crito and Dionysius, this argument is first introducedRead MoreLegend By Marie Lu : The Republic1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLegend by Marie Lu is a, post-apocalyptic future Los Angeles dystopia ruled by the Republic. In Legend, there are two main characters; Day a fifteen year old boy, also, the Republics most wanted criminal. He is also homeless, because he had failed his trial that he had taken when he was ten that determines his social class and his job. His brother is affected by a new kind of plague, which is Ã¢â¬Å"attackingÃ¢â¬ the sectors. His other brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s name is John and he has a mother. He lives with his friend TessRead MoreEssay on Machiavellis Advice to Republics570 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMachiavellis Advice to Republics In secular democracies, power is necessarily derived from the will of the governed. That power is then entrusted to a leader, who Machiavelli would understand to be a prince. Inherently, his book, The Prince, has been close at hand for most politicians for centuries, as it provides general, historically proven advice for principalities and republics on how to govern and maintain relations with their most important resource and the very core of their power
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Running head: PHOBIAS AND ADDICTIONS Phobias and Addictions PSY/300 Abstract This essay examines phobias and addictions, how phobias can be developed through operant conditioning and how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning. This essay also examines the distinctions between classical and operant condition and examines Ã¢â¬Å"extinctionÃ¢â¬ as it relates to psychological theory and how extinction is achieved in classical and operant conditioning. Phobias and Addictions Numerous psychologists believe that behaviors are learned through conditioning. These conditionings are known as operant, which is based on individualÃ¢â¬â¢s response to outside stimuli, and classical conditioning, which isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Whereas, in operant conditioning a behavior becomes associated with an environmental effect such as a feeling of being rewarded by performing a certain behavior. Classical conditioning is a passive learning experience, whereas Operant conditioning is generally a more active learning experience. What is extinction? In psyc hology, extinction is the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing. For example, when a dog becomes conditioned to receiving treats due to begging, (reinforcing the behavior), the dog can become conditioned to developing a taste for only treats. At this point the dog will stop eating its regular diet and eat only treats. For extinction, you ignore the dogs begging for treats and eventually this behavior will stop and the dog will resume eating its regular diet. Ã¢â¬Å" Reinforcement is one type of environmental consequence that controls behavior through operant conditioning; the other is punishment, whereas reinforcement always increases the likelihood of a response, either by the presentation of a reward or the removal of an aversive stimulus, punishment decreases the probability that a behavior will recurÃ¢â¬ (Kowalski Weston ,2009).While extinction can be actualized, the process of disassociating a person to bring abou t a change in behavior can be long, and, arduous, yet it can be an extremely rewarding journey. Extinction in classicalShow MoreRelatedPhobias And Its Effects On Phobias925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA phobia is a phenomenon where an organism has a distinct fear of a particular event or object. Phobias can not only be a biological instinct but rather a conditioned emotional response as well. Though, there has been some argument on what causes phobia it is generally accepted that phobias both stem from biological input and environmental experiences. The first reference to phobias was done by Hippocrates, who wrote about one of his patients having an extreme fear over something that othersRead MorePhobias802 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAracniphobi, the fear of spiders, might be one of the first phobias to come across someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s lips. One of my phobias is Cynophobia, or the fear of dogs. There are many things that scare people, but when someone starts thinking of college, fear is not the first thing that pops into their head. Usually, itÃ¢â¬â¢s things like staying up late, freedom, and being on your own that makes everyone jump for joy to leave their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s nest. I feel fear. IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid to an extent. I know that it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be the beingRead More Phobias Essay1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrecognizes that phobias are not something to be ashamed of, and that everyone has at least one. But what exactly is a phobia? Simply put, itÃ¢â¬â¢s an anxiety disorder. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The exact definition of a phobia is a bit different though. A phobia is an anxiety disorder in which a person will experience a strong, irrational fear of a situation, object, or activity. Adults with fears usually realize they are being irrational, but children are the opposite. A phobia will produce a feelingRead MorePhobias: Effects and Treatments of Phobias Essay1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand situations involving spiders. Should phobias be treated in everybody, including young children? Phobias should be treated seriously, because they cause disruptions in the lives of the victims, they leave emotional and psychological scars, and the cause acute distress and panic attacks that take a normal situation and make it terrifying. A phobia is an irrational fear of an object or situation (Ã¢â¬Å"PhobiaFacts Ã¢â¬â PhobiasÃ¢â¬ ). Every fear is a phobia though there may not be an official nameRead MoreEssay on Phobias1925 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPhobias Fear is a normal and an important human reaction to something dangerous, it keeps one out of danger, because fear is disliked and one tries ones best to avoid the object or situation of fear. It causes physical changes known as fight-or-flight reaction, which causes blood pressure to increase and the heart rate to speed up to pump blood to the large muscles used to run away, to balance this the human body has sweat glands which produce perspiration to cool the body. Usually young peopleRead More Phobias Essay2226 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Phobias nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Phobias are a very common disorder in the United States these days. The definition for phobia is quot;an abnormal or morbid fear or aversionquot; (quot;Oxfordquot; 655). To be considered a phobia, a fear must cause great distress or interfere with a personamp;#8217;s life in a major way. The word phobia is Greek, therefore, any word that proceeds it should be Greek too. To coin a new phobia name, it is proper and only accepted to follow this rule. TheRead MoreThe History of Phobias Essay1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPhobias have been in existence for many years. Phobias date back to the works of Hippocrates, a prehistoric Greek physician (Korgeski, 2009). The works of Hippocrates are still debated today. In The Seventh Book of Epidemics, one of the publications by Hippocrates, he studied an individual and he interpreted a condition that the person portrayed. The results of the observation were that the individual was petrified of the sound of a flute, if he was nÃ¢â¬â¢t intoxicated. He noticed the individual wasRead MoreFear : Fear And Phobia1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFear and phobia, we all face one at some point in time though the question of what causes it or at the least why we were we biologically inclined to have phobias and fear.Winerman, L. (2016). Lest we forget we have nothing to fear but fear itself and look upon this inquiry of what fear is. Be it a scary movie or something far more sinister, but what does it all mean? What causes you to fear? Well Based on my research I conclude that fear is something that can be learned or inherited. Alongside myRead MorePhobia Speech902 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestrucks below looked like ants? Would you scream, yell or cry? Would you be left feeling nauseas, or unable to move. Would you hyperventilate and suffer a serious heart attack right there siting on your chair? If you would, you may have a phobia. A phobia is an extreme or irrational fear. Everybody suffers from some kind of fear, everybody in the WORLD suffers from some kind of fear. Except Chuck Norris, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have fears, fears have Chuck Norris. Most fears start fron scary events/thingRead MorePhobia Research Paper2253 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesKnown as a mental disorder a phobia is a persistent fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to compelling desire to avoid it. Phobias tend to affect the way people live their lives, for example, their working and social environments, considering that they last for a very long time and are capable to cause intense psychological physical stress. It is considered today the most common mental and anxiety disorder in the United States (Matig Mavissakalian David H. Barlow 1981 pp
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Institutional Pharmacy Setting Essay Institutional Pharmacy Setting 1 Institutional Pharmacy Setting Axia College of University of Phoenix Leonalda Cruz Institutional Pharmacy Setting 2 An institutional pharmacy provides an array of services for residents of nursing homes, hospitals, hospice care, and other long term facilities. In this particular setting, the pharmacist will take responsibility for the medication that the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ need and ensures that patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ medications are appropriate, effective, safe, and they are used correctly. A pharmacy technician may work with less supervision in this setting, so it is important that the technician also be familiar with dosing, compounding, IV administration, and other drug relation procedures. The institutional pharmacy provides delivery service and prescription drugs that are individually packaged. Pharmacists constantly check patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ drug interaction to avoid duplication of the treatment and reactions. The institutional pharmacy is a principal defense against medical errors and allows the pharmacists and staff to provide patient the quality care that they deserve. The pharmacist counsels patients, provide drug regimens, and oversee medication distribution. Institutional pharmacists and technicians use controlled dispensing systems to make sure that patients have the right drugs at the right time and in the proper dosage and form. Intense services and comprehensive scope are other services provided by the institutional pharmacy. oÃ Ã For what tasks might an institutional-pharmacy technician be responsible? oÃ Ã How are medication orders processed in an institutional pharmacy setting? oÃ Ã How do institutional and noninstitutional pharmacy settings differ? oÃ Ã What patient issues might arise when working in an institutional pharmacy setting? oÃ Ã Which issues may be unique to institutional pharmacy settings?
Sunday, April 5, 2020
When she first stepped off the bus the first thing she saw was the buildings they were huge and she could taste the exaust of the busses behind her . Blowing in the air when she grabbed her bags from under the bus she felt the vibrations run threw her body from the bus. She was so hungry and threw the smog taste in her mouth she smelled a hot dog stand near by with the hint of onions she also heard yelling busses being called out for their destinations. Everything was so exciting and new to her. She couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t wait to get to the halfway house so she could start her new life over , Like she was getting a do over she waived a taxi down . She only had so many minutes to get to , Bryden Rd Columbus, Ohio so she told the samalian taxi driver her situation how she had no time to waste . We will write a custom essay sample on Girl Running Away or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He immediately turned on the meter and they were off she reached her destination in enough time to allow the man to retrieve her bags from the trunk and walk her to the front door. When she first walked in she could smell murphy oil soap they used for cleaning the wood floors. . She gave them her name and was shown her room she unpacked it felt weird to her because she was in the free world again . No one telling her when to get up when to go to sleep when to pee not to pee . Just free over all but in her mind she was still running away from her past insteade of going home she decided to go to a city she had no family in or friends . But she would soon learn that was a big mistake . She did what she needed to do to get out the halfway house earlier than 90 days and found her an apartment and a job but she still had hidden issues the fact that she was a closet drinker and as time went on she started to get lonely and would drink to get to sleep at night and that started her to miss work and she lost her job and meet this guy who was in to deep dark drugs she was looking for love in the wrong places, and she found herself turning dates for money to make the new man in her life happy but she found out two people on drugs donÃ¢â¬â¢t work he started beating her everyday so she tried to leave he just followed her and her being in a city with no family he knew no one would care what he did to her . So God sent her an angel to help her get away from him and she got cleanead up and married her and they had four babies and now she looks back at her life and what she came from and where she is now1 References Sherreace Brown . Appendix Each Appendix appears on its own page. Footnotes 1Complete APA style formatting information may be found in the Publication Manual. Table 1 Type the table text here in italics; start a new page for each table [Insert table here] Figure Captions Figure 1. Caption of figure [Figures Ã¢â¬â note that this page does not have the manuscript header and page number]
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Compounds of plant secondary metabolites Essay Example Compounds of plant secondary metabolites Essay Compounds of plant secondary metabolites Essay Introduction What are secondary metabolites? Plant secondary metabolites are compounds that have no recognized function in the care of cardinal life processes in the programs that synthesize them ( Oksman-Caldentey, et Al. 2004 ) . Historically, secondary metabolites where idea of as waste merchandises as their absence does non ensue in the immediate decease of the works. Primary metabolites such as phytosterols, acyl lipoids, bases, aminic acids and organic acids, are critical for the basic life maps such as cell division and growing, respiration, storage and reproduction. With betterments in biochemical techniques and the development of molecular biological science, secondary metabolites have been proven non to be waste merchandises ( Bourgaud, et Al. 2001 ) . Their map is to help the works in its interaction with its environment. These interactions can be plant-insect, plant-microorganism and plant-plant interaction, making a complex and dynamic mixture of facultative and obligate interactions from mutualism to pathogenicity ( Dixon 2001 ) . Presently more than 100,000 secondary metabolites are known, and with there being at least 250,000 different works species, each with an infinite figure of interactions possible with their environment, many are thought to be undiscovered ( Pimm, et Al. 1995 ) .Generally our cognition of secondary metabolites is limited, with there being a big figure of cistrons, some of which being genus or even species specific. There is besides an tremendous chemodiversity between secondary metabolites, taking to a hapless word picture of metabolic tracts at the degree of biosynthetic intermediates and enzymes ( Dixon and Steele 1999 ; Forkmann and Martens 2001 ) . Secondary metabolite diverseness in workss is an evolutionary driven feature that is mostly influenced by their dynamic environment. There is a huge array of functions that these secondary metabolites are involved in, including protection against herbivores, microbic infection, and attractants for pollinators and allelopathic agents. Of those discovered, most are derived from merely a few edifice blocks, the ethanoate C2 unit ( polyketides ) , the phenylalaine/tryrosine-dervied C9 unit ( phenyl-proanoids ) , the isopentenyl diphosphate C5 unit and some aminic acids ( Verpoorte 1998 ) . Exploitation of secondary metabolites is of immense benefit in the production of pharmaceuticals ( see table 1 ) , dyes, insect powders, nutrient additives and spirits, and cosmetics. What is Biotechnology? Biotechnology is the control and calculated use of a life system to develop commercial procedures and a merchandise. In the production of secondary metabolites it offers unprecedented chances to work the cell, tissue, organ or full beings by turning them in vitro and to genetically pull strings them to obtain a coveted merchandise. Biotechnology provides an alternate to obtaining secondary metabolites from wild and cultivated workss. Reaping from wild programs has built-in jobs due to extinction of the harvest from which the metabolite is isolated, habit devastation and a loss of familial diverseness within works species ( certain species affected include Arcostaphylos uva-vrsa ( bear berry ) and Piper methysticum ( kava ) ) . It is estimated that between 4,000 and 10,000 works species whose secondary metabolites are extracted for medical intents are now endangered ( Edwards, 2004 ) . Conventional agricultural production of secondary metabolites is hapless as the workss of greatest involvement to industry make non turn good when they are cultivated outside of their natural environment. Another danger posed by big field cultivation is the susceptibleness of the workss to pathogen invasion ( anthracnose on Hypericum perforatum ) ( Bourgaud et al.,2001 ) . Chemical synthesis of secondary metabolites is frequently non possible due to their extremely complex constructions and a deficiency of sufficient cognition of specific stereochemical demands needed and besides, the feasibleness of the production procedure can be a hinderance ( Bourgaud et al. , 2001 ) . Biotechnology presents the possibility for the production of secondary metabolites with higher outputs, a uniformed higher quality merchandise, feasibleness and dependability. Due to a deficiency of cognition of secondary metabolites in the developmental phases, under specific emphasiss, seasonal or alimentary demands in workss, merely a few high value secondary metabolites utilizing a biotechnological attack are successful to day of the month on a commercial graduated table. An illustration is shikonin production by cell suspension civilizations of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Chemical categories of Secondary Metabolites. Secondary metabolites can be classified on the footing of chemical construction, composing, whether or non they are soluble in H2O or the tract by which they are synthesised. There are three chief categories: Terpenoids Phenolic resins Alkaloids. Terpenoids. Terpenoids are the largest group of secondary metabolites ( Verpoorte and Memelink, 2002 ) with more than 30,000 different constructions ( Julsing et al. , 2006 ) . All terpenoids are derived by the insistent merger of bifurcate five C units based on an isopentane skeleton. Terpenoids are frequently referred to as isoprenoids. Terpenoids are classified based on the figure of five Cs units they contain. The smallest of these, is isoprene ( C5 ) which is of import in the commercial production of spirits and aroma additives. Sterols are 30 C molecules called triterpene. They play an of import function in the pharmaceutical industry as a get downing stuff for the synthesis of drugs such as steroid endocrines and preventives. In workss, terpenoids are responsible for the release of volatile compounds in response to herbivore harm. These compounds function in pulling arthropods, which prey on the herbivores. Other categories of terpenoids include phytoalexins, which provide direct defense mechanism against herbivores and microbic pathogens. Alkaloids Alkaloids are the best studied category of secondary metabolites. More than 12,000 alkaloids have been identified ( Oksman-Caldent, 2004 ) . Alkaloids contain N derived from amino acids ( Julsing et al. , 2006 ) and map is thought to be involved in the defense mechanism of the works. Alkaloids represent a really diverse group of medically important compounds that include good known drugs such as morphia and codeine. See figure 2. Phenolic resins Phenolic compounds contain aromatic rings bearing one or more hydroxyl groups ( -OH ) . Nearly 8000 of these phenolic compounds have been discovered to day of the month. They are derived from pentose phosphate, shikimate and phenylpropanoid tracts. They have a wide scope of maps including growing, reproduction and defense mechanism. Flavonoids are the largest group of phenolic compounds, and are found in about all known works species ( Julsing et al. , 2006 ) .
Friday, February 21, 2020
Economics - Essay Example Because of rationality in making economic decisions people often consider the cost and the benefit of their decision. In most cases, people will make an economic decision anticipating a gain (Hirschey, 2009). When purchasing a house I will expect a gain of value, my decision will therefore be based on the difference between the cost incurred to obtain the house and its value. This essay will give a discussion on the economic implication on my decision to purchase a house. Several principals among the ten economics principals will directly influence my decision towards buying the house. Firstly, people face tradeoffs. This is the first principal that I will encounter in the process of making the purchase decision (Slembeck, 2007). This principal implies that one has to give up something in order to acquire something else. According to this principal, I will need to give up my money in exchange to the house. I will also need to give up the purchase of other items that I need most such as a new car in order to acquire the house. Lastly, after acquiring the new house I will have to give up living in my old house in order to occupy the new house. Rational people think at the margin, this is the second economic principal that I will encounter when analyzing my decision to purchase the house (Slembeck, 2007). This principal implies that a rational decision is based on the difference between marginal benefits and cost. ... When buying the house I need to evaluate how the cost of the house compares to the cost of missed opportunities. Finally, people respond to incentives, this principal will be major influence when making the decision (Slembeck, 2007). This means that my decision will tend to follow incentives offered by the different sellers in the market. According to the principal, I will consider purchasing the house from the seller who offers the best discount. Marginal benefits are the additional utility or satisfaction that a person derives from the consumption of an additional unit of a particular commodity. On the other hand, the marginal cost refers to the opportunity cost of acquiring an additional unit of a particular commodity. In the cases of purchasing the house, marginal benefits will refer to the satisfaction derived from a second and subsequent consumption of a commodity (Hirshleifer, Glazer, & Hirshleifer, 2005). The marginal benefit of a house diminishes steadily after acquiring the first unit this is because a person cannot live in two houses simultaneously. This implies that people will tend to spend their money to acquire other items after acquiring their first house. Similarly first time homebuyers will consider their first house as an additional unit. In this case, the house will have a higher marginal benefit that compares well with the missed opportunities. The marginal cost of an item refers to the opportunity cost incurred from acquiring an extra unit of a particular commodity. The opportunity cost of a house is therefore the cost of missed opportunities resulting from acquisition of a second and subsequent house. The marginal cost of a house increases steadily after acquiring the first house since a person can only live in one